Cognitive science explores thinking from several scientific perspectives. Phenomena such as perception, action, memory, learning, language, communication, conceptualisation, problem-solving, decision-making, and human interaction with and within complex environments are central to the subject. These phenomena are studied through a combination of knowledge and methods from psychology, computer science, neuroscience, biology, linguistics, philosophy, anthropology, pedagogy and informatics. An overarching objective is to better understand the interplay between people and their surroundings, in order to contribute to the development of systems, artefacts and methods that work well for people. The multifaceted comparative approach is based on: (i) artificial systems such as robots and virtual agents; (ii) other biological systems, in particular other primates; (iii) the development of knowledgeable beings over time: from an evolutionary and individual perspective, and (iv) human variation to study how structures in cognitive processes vary under different circumstances.